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    a journal of software studies

    Author Yuk Hui


    Affiliation Centre for Cultural Studies, Goldsmiths


    Publication Date November 2011

    Publication Date
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    Review of, Manual DeLanda, Philosophy and Simulation, the emergence of synthetic reason London, Continuum, 2011 ISBN 1441170286 240 Pages

    Manual DeLanda has been best known as a significant figure in the introduction of the works of Gilles Deleuze to the English speaking world with numerous examples of scientific phenomenon. Such an approach presents Deleuze as a scientifically informed philosopher who also used science and technology as a pivot to carry out a revolution within the field of French philosophy, as well as extending the philosophy of Deleuze to a broader range of areas that exceed Deleuze’s own endeavours. Four years after the publication of A New Philosophy of Society , Manual DeLanda has returned with a new title, Philosophy and Simulation—The emergence of synthetic reason , in which the name Gilles Deleuze only appears in the bibliography of the appendix. Shall we expect a new philosophy on the way, one not shadowed by the name Deleuze? A name nevertheless adds power to the history of philosophy, in Deleuze’s own words, the name of the father.

    In this new title, DeLanda proposes a philosophy of emergence by defending what he calls synthetic reason, one that cannot be reduced to deduction and its principles, one that exceeds both the linear, simple mechanisms and the logical operation of the human brain, one that can better be thought by computation and mathematical models. The book, in its modest words, according to DeLanda, is to study the various mechanisms of emergence and its ontological status through computer simulations. Yet the ‘and’ in the title also gives an ambiguous position to ‘simulation’ in a philosophical text such as this. The book consists of eleven chapters on different phenomenon of emergence including chemistry, genetic algorithms, neural networks, economies, language, society, accompanied with examples of computer simulation. It finishes with an appendix to associate this ambitious work with what he has developed elsewhere: the theory of assemblage. The philosophical goal is to unfold an “emergent materialist world view that finally does justice to the creative powers of matter and energy”, but, interestingly, through computer simulations.

    The first question that must be justified is what is the relation between emergence and simulation? That question is immediately followed with another one: what is the position of philosophy in such an assemblage? DeLanda recognizes that simulation cannot be fully responsible for ensuring the legitimacy of the concept of emergence; in fact, simulation is always a reproduction of an epistemological understanding. Simulation for DeLanda is a tool that opens up a philosophy that can be visualized and imagined through the topological figures and the constant reconfiguration of data within the simulated environment. Simulation demonstrates and confirms DeLanda’s early writings on the creative force of matter, which formed what one might call a scientifically informed transcendental empiricism. In this respect, DeLanda remains loyal to his Deleuzian method of philosophy, as stated in Qu’est que la Philosophie by Deleuze and Guattari: ‘Philosophy is a constructivism, and the construction has two complementary aspects that are different in nature: to create the concepts and to trace a plane” London Mens TENIS PUNCHING LowTop Trainer Pepe Jeans London Kmjnp
    . Philosophers establish a plane according to their contemporary situation and project the image of thought to the diagrammatic infinity. In this book, DeLanda creates the concepts of synthetic reasons and further develops that of the abstract structure of the assemblage, it also seems to me that he was trying to extend a plane that goes beyond the previous conception of transcendental empiricism, but this yet remains obscure in this ambitious work.

    For rows of cells to slide past each other, cells would have to undergo a peculiar type of T1 transition in which the orientation of the boundaries gained and lost are similar. Boundary orientations around T1 transitions are difficult to measure, because boundary length is small. The triangulation method provides us with a more robust measure of a bond orientation. As a proxy for cell boundary orientation, we use the orientation of the line connecting the centers of the two corresponding triangles ( Mens Atwood LowTop Sneakers Vans vG6L0
    ). We calculated the proportion of connection losses or acquisitions occurring in different directions over the course of morphogenesis, and compared them with the distribution of connection angles in general. We observe that at early times, when T1-induced shear is mainly along the AP axis, connections are typically lost along the PD axis and gained along the AP axis ( Womens 4891408 Boat Shoes Tom Tailor 7CvZbjCi
    ). At intermediate times, when the correlation term is maximal, both lost and gained connections were oriented along the PD axis ( Figure 7B ). This is consistent with the unusual T1 transitions associated with sliding cell rows. Finally, as T1 transitions begin to cause net PD shear, AP connections are preferentially lost and PD connections are gained ( Womens Splash Platform Sandals Zaxy YYCYRhShX
    ). Thus, as T1 transitions shift from an AP- to a PD-oriented shear, they pass through an intermediate state where connection gains and losses are still oriented but do not cause shear. Interestingly, at the same time, the correlation term has maximal magnitude. This suggests that the correlation effects are related to these unusual patterns of T1 transitions at intermediate times.

    Figure 7
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    (–) Effective proportions of cell–cell connections that are lost (blue) or gained (red) in different directions as a consequence of cell rearrangements in a WT wing. To calculate these effective …

    To investigate which cellular events depended on epithelial stresses, we quantified shape changes and cellular contributions to tissue shear in the dumpy ov1 mutant wing blade ( Figure 8A,B ). As a complementary approach, we also studied these events in wings that had been subjected to laser severing ( Womens 2750 Cotmetembos Trainers Superga RdNT9
    and Figure 8—figure supplement 1 ). In dumpy ov1 wings, cells experience hinge contraction but the counterforces exerted by cuticle connections seem to be reduced ( Figure 2A–A′′ ). Tissue shear is dramatically altered in dumpy ov1 mutant wings as compared to WT—instead of shearing in the PD axis, these wings shear on average along the AP axis ( Figure 8A,B ). Examining the different contributions to tissue shear in dumpy ov1 wings shows that the rates of AP shear caused by T1 transitions and by correlation effects are similar to WT and persist for longer times. Thus, these processes are likely to be autonomously driven. By the end of the video, they cause more accumulated AP-oriented shear than in WT. Analogously, cell divisions cause more cumulative PD shear than in WT—consistent with the increased number of cell divisions in the dumpy ov1 mutant wing. In contrast, cell elongation during phase I causes less PD shear than in WT. Thus, PD-oriented epithelial stresses must contribute to PD cell elongation. Interestingly, the increase of cell elongation in the PD axis still exceeds the increase of elongation of the blade in the dumpy ov1 mutant wing. This suggests that autonomous cellular processes cause the residual PD cell elongation in dumpy ov1 mutant wings. Finally, PD shear by T1 transitions in phase II is smaller than in WT. This is not due to a premature cessation of T1's—indeed quantifying the rate of T1 transitions (regardless of orientation) shows that they occur at a higher rate and for a longer time than in WT wings ( tasselled loafers Brown Tods 0GbEG
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    Thanks for leaving your experience, Sandra. I was never diagnosed with b12 deficiency before I started the paleo diet because I never had a doctor that had a clue but I had many of the symptoms you described which is what prompted me to start the paleo diet to begin with. The symptoms cleared up quite quickly when I changed my eating habits but I have always noticed that they return to some degree when my digestion is impaired (when I deviate from the diet).

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    Irene Gutteridge says

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